Ingeborg A. Brouwer, 2016
In order to inform and contribute to the development of updated WHO recommendations on TFA intake, this study reviewed and meta-analyzed the effect of modifying TFA intake on blood lipid and lipoprotein levels by exchanging TFA with cis-MUFA, cis-PUFA, SFA or carbohydrates
The results show clearly and consistently that reducing intake of total or industrial TFA by replacing either with cis-MUFA or cis-PUFA, and to a lesser extent, carbohydrates, improves the lipid and lipoprotein profiles towards reduced risk of CVD.
The results on ruminant TFA studies were less conclusive, because of the limited number of high-quality studies. However, analysis of effects on LDL cholesterol did show that replacement of ruminant TFA by either cis-MUFA or cis-PUFA led to significantly lower levels of LDL cholesterol.
Furthermore, replacement of ruminant TFA by either cis-MUFA or cis-PUFA led to results in the same direction as replacement of industrial TFA, with the exception of the effect on triglycerides.
Figure 1. Predicted changes in the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations when carbohydrates constituting 1% of energy are replaced iso-energetically with with industrial TFA, ruminant TFA or total TFA.
These studies largely confirm the conclusions from earlier publications on TFA (Brouwer, 2010 & 2013), with only minor changes as result of slightly different criteria for inclusion of individual studies.
The study can be downloaded here.